While the love and companionship of a dog is priceless, ownership is not.

California, already known for its high cost of living expenses, is ranked as the most expensive place to own a dog, according to a new study from Market Watch.

California dog owners pay an average of $35,452 over their dog’s lifetime, the highest of any state, researchers found.

The high cost of owning a dog in California is primarily due to expensive pet insurance premiums, vet care and dog food, the report said.

To determine the ranking, researchers calculated the average cost of owning a Labrador retriever, the most popular dog in the U.S. based on data from the American Kennel Club.

Assuming that the dog lives up to 11 years, analysts found the average costs of annual fees, such as insurance, grooming, food, checkups, toys, boarding and emergency vet visits, and upfront costs such as neuter procedures and vaccines.

These were the most expensive states for dog owners

  1. California: $35,452
  2. New York: $34,248
  3. Massachusetts: $33,318
  4. New Jersey: $32,947
  5. Washington: $32,894

These are the least expensive state for dog owners

  1. Oklahoma: $24,855
  2. Mississippi: $25,104
  3. Indiana: $25,479
  4. Nebraska: $25,662
  5. Louisiana: $25,760

The study didn’t include the cost of owning a dog in certain states like Alaska, North Dakota, South Dakota or Hawaii, adoption costs and rental fees for owning a dog since those data points can vary.